Friday, March 7, 2014

Parsha Vayikra, The man who killed the Amalek Nazi in NJ and more

As we start Sefer Vayikra let me remind you that for those who get my posts direct, if the direct Drasha does not arrive close to Shabbos Israel time then check

Prayers for Men: Eliezer David HaCohain ben Naomi, Asher ben Esther Malka, Avraham ben Devorah, Zvi Yechezkel ben Leah, Naphtali Moshe ben Tziporah, Shalom Charles ben Gracia, Yoel ben Esther, Zev ben Rachel, Yehonatan ben Malka, Shraga Shlomo ben Sara, Zvi ben Chava, Avraham ben Rachel, Shlomo Chaim ben Basya Raizal, Shmuel ben Zahava, Yosef Manus ben Sheina Pesia, David Zvi ben Sarah Leah. Yosef ben Shifra

Women: Karen Neshama bas Esther Ruth, Chaya Melecha Rachel bas Baila Alta, Rachel bas Chana, Hodaya Nirit bas Mazel, Rivka bas Idit, Kayla Rus bas Chaya Rachel, Tsvia Simcha bas Devorah Yachad, Esther bas Tziporah, Miriam bas Irene Taita Malka, Ruda Itzka Minyan bas Liba, Carol bas Esther, Henshi bas Nashe, Naomi Esther bas Tziporah, Hena bas Gizella, Geula bas Chasa Leah for a few weeks

The following people are recovering from long term non-threatening injuries and need Psalms. Binum Benyamin Tuvia ben Chana Friedel, Adele Chaya bas Edva, Adina bas Sara in remission, Sara Merkava bas Elisheva,

How is your arithmetic? Here is the quote of the month from deputy minister Michael Levy of the Yesh Atid Party regarding the massive Charedi Demonstration: “We made the law because every year there are 8,000 who do not serve in the army because they are learning Torah. 1,800 will be exempt and the other 5,200 we will draft. I have nothing against them in fact I honor the KORAN!” The last might have been a slip of the tongue but this math genius even out did the 57 States.

Parsha Vayikra Part 1

This is one time when I mention the Bible Code. With the other Torah Books, Beresheis and Shemos spell out the word Torah forward at intervals of 49 and Bamidbar and Devarim spell Hay, Resh, Vav, Tav (backwards) at interval of 49. Vayikra the middle Sefer has the author’s signature at an interval of 7 Yud-Kay-Vav-Kay where Kay is substituted for Hay. Sefer Vayikra is called Toras Cohanim as the first half deals mainly with Korbanos and other duties of a Cohain. It contains rules of Modesty and Kashrus and from Acharei Mos through Emor are included well over 100 Mitzvos. It ends on the notes of Shmita and bringing the Bikurim.


1:1 And the LORD called unto Moses, and spoke unto him out of the tent of meeting, saying:

Below is just an example of how Rashi attacks the subject: There is a story told by the third Rebbe of Lubavitch that when he was a child they started learning Chumash with Vayikra and not Beresheis as many do today. He asked his grandfather, the founder of Chabad, why there is a little Aleph at the end of the word instead of a regular Aleph? The Rebbe answered the child, “In Divrei HaYamim (Chronicles) Adam is written with a big Aleph because he was proud that the whole world was created for him. But his pride was his downfall from Gan Eden. Moshe who humbled himself beyond all other men got the small and humble Aleph in the book devoted to holiness.    

And He called to Moses: Every [time God communicated with Moses, whether it was represented by the expression] וַיְדַבֵּר, “And He spoke,” or וַיֹּאמֶר; “and He said,” or וַיְצַו, “and He commanded,” it was always preceded by [God] calling [to Moses by name] (Torath Kohanim 1:2-3). [קְרִיאָה] is an expression of affection, the [same] expression employed by the ministering angels [when addressing each other], as it says, “And one called (וְקָרָא) to the other…” (Isa. 6:3). To the prophets of the nations of the world, however, He revealed Himself through expressions denoting coincidence and impurity, as the verse says, “and God happened to [meet] (וַיִּקָּר) Balaam” (Num. 23:4). - [Bemidbar Rabbah 52:5] [The expression וַיִּקָּר has the meaning of a coincidental happening, and also alludes to impurity. [See Deut. 23:11, regarding the expression מִקְרֵה לַיְלָה.] And He called to Moses: The [Divine] voice emanated and reached Moses’ ears, while all [the rest] of Israel did not hear it. One might think that for each new section [representing a new topic], there was also [such] a call. Scripture, therefore, states, “and [the Lord] spoke (וַיְדַבֵּר) [to him],” [denoting that] only for speech, [i.e., when God “spoke” to Moses, or “said” to him, or “commanded” him,] was there a call, but not at the subsections. [For when these expressions are employed, they demarcate the beginning of major sections, i.e., when God first called to Moses and then proceeded with the prophecy at hand, unlike the beginning of each separate subsection, when God simply continued His communication to Moses without “calling” him anew. Now, if each subsection in the Torah does not represent a new beckoning from God to Moses, ushering in a new prophecy, then] what is the purpose of these subsections? To give Moses a pause, to contemplate between one passage and the next, and between one subject and another. [And if this pause for contemplation was given to the great Moses when being taught by God, then] how much more [necessary is it] for an ordinary man learning [Torah] from another ordinary man [to be allowed pauses between sections and subjects, to carefully contemplate and understand the material being learned]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:3]to him: Heb. אֵלָיו [That is, God spoke only to Moses. This phrase comes] to exclude Aaron. Rabbi Judah [Ben Betheira] says: “Thirteen times in the Torah, God spoke (וַיְדַבֵּר) to both Moses and Aaron together, and, corresponding to them were thirteen [other] occasions [when God spoke only to Moses] precluding [Aaron], to teach you that they were not said [directly] to Aaron, but to Moses, that he should say them to Aaron. These are the thirteen cases where [Aaron was] precluded: (1) ”To speak with him…,“ (2) ”…speaking to him…,“ (3) ”…and He spoke to him“ (Num. 7:89); (4) ”I will meet with you [there at set times], etc. …“ (Exod. 25:22) All of them can be found [in the above dictum of Rabbi Judah] in Torath Kohanim (1:4). Now, [even though it was Moses who exclusively heard the prophecies,] one might think that they [i.e., the rest of Israel, nevertheless] heard the sound [of God] ”calling“ [to Moses preceding the prophecy]. Scripture therefore, says: [not ”He heard] the voice [speaking] to him (לוֹ),“ [but] ”[he heard] the voice [speaking right up] to him (אֵלָיו)“ (Num. 7:89). [This verse could have used the word לוֹ, ”to him,“ rather than such an exclusive expression as אֵלָיו, ”right up to him." However, it uses this expression in order to teach us that only] Moses heard [the Divine voice calling him], while all [the rest] of Israel did not hear [it]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:4]  from the Tent of Meeting: This teaches us that the [Divine] voice stopped and did not project itself beyond the Tent [of Meeting]. One might think that this was because the voice was low. Scripture therefore says, “[And when Moses came into the Tent of Meeting, he heard] the voice” (Num. 7:89). What is the meaning of “the voice” [with the definite article]? It is the voice referred to in Psalms (29:4-5): “The voice of the Lord is in strength; the voice of the Lord is in beauty. The voice of the Lord breaks cedars.” If so, why does it say, “[and the Lord spoke to him] from the Tent of Meeting” ? [To inform us] that the [Divine] voice stopped. A case similar to this [where a powerful sound uttered within the Holy Temple was not heard outside,] is: “And the sound of the cherubim’s wings was heard up to the outer courtyard…” (Ezek. 10:5). One might think that the sound was low. Scripture therefore states [further in that verse]: “…as the voice of the Almighty God when He speaks!” Why then does the verse say, “[the sound…was heard] up to the outer courtyard” [and not further, if this sound was indeed so mighty]? Because when it reached there, it stopped. — [Torath Kohanim 1:5] [And the Lord spoke to him] from the Tent of Meeting, saying: One might think [that God spoke to Moses] from the entire house [that is, that the Divine voice emanated from the entire Tent of Meeting]. Scripture therefore states, “[and he heard the voice speaking to him] from above the ark cover” (Num. 7:89). [If so,] one might think [the voice emanated] from the entire ark cover. Scripture therefore states [further in that verse], “from between the two cherubim.” - [Torath Kohanim 1:5] saying: [God told Moses:] Go forth and say to them [the children of Israel] captivating words, [namely:] “For your sake God communicates with me. ” Indeed, we find this is so for all the thirty-eight years that the Israelites were in the desert, placed under a ban, [i.e.,] from the incident involving the spies and onwards, the [Divine] speech was not addressed especially to Moses, for it says, “So it was, when all the men of war had finished dying from among the people, that the Lord spoke to me saying …” (Deut. 2: 16-17). [Only then was] the Divine speech [again] addressed specifically to me. Another explanation [of לֵאמֹר is that God says to Moses]: “Go forth and tell them My commandments, and bring Me back word whether they will accept them,” as the verse says, “and Moses reported the words of the people back to the Lord” (Exod. 19:8). - [Torath Kohanim 1:6]

2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them: When any man of you brings an offering unto the LORD, ye shall bring your offering of the cattle, even of the herd or of the flock. 3 If his offering be a burnt-offering of the herd, he shall offer it a male without blemish; he shall bring it to the door of the tent of meeting, that he may be accepted before the LORD.

This is the Korban Olah.

Male: but not a female. When Scripture repeats later (verse 10) [that the burnt-offering must be] “a male [animal],” it appears unnecessary to state that [since Scripture has already taught us that it must be a male animal and not a female. Therefore, this repetition of the word “male,” comes to teach us that a sacrifice must consist of a completely] male [animal], not an animal of indeterminate gender or a hermaphrodite. — [Bech. 41b]

4 And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the burnt-offering; and it shall be accepted for him to make atonement for him.

Upon the head of the burnt offering: [The text could have simply said “upon its head.” However, it adds “burnt offering”] to include [any sacrifice that is called a “burnt offering,” namely,] (1) an obligatory burnt offering, that it too requires סְמִיכָה [leaning the hands on its head. Since this section deals with voluntary burnt offerings, this case requires an extra word to include it. See commentary on verse 2]; also included is (2) a burnt offering from the flock [that it too must have סְמִיכָה, for this is not specified in the verses dealing with the burnt offering from the flock. See verses 10-13]. — [Torath Kohanim 1:30]

5 And he shall slaughter the bullock before the LORD; and Aaron's sons, the priests, shall present the blood, and dash the blood roundabout against the altar that is at the door of the tent of meeting.

Please note the JPS translation based on the KJV is mistaken and everytime you see a “kill the animal” or “kill” it means that the kosher food or Korban is to be ritually slaughtered and not killed. Trafe and Nivaila are killed or torn but not Korbanos or kosher food. So if I miss out in Sefer Vayikra and further about the word kill and slaughter follow the rule that it is slaughtered.

6 And he shall flay the burnt-offering, and cut it into its pieces. 7 And the sons of Aaron the priest shall put fire upon the altar, and lay wood in order upon the fire. 8 And Aaron's sons, the priests, shall lay the pieces, and the head, and the suet, in order upon the wood that is on the fire which is upon the altar; 9 but its inwards and its legs shall he wash with water; and the priest shall make the whole smoke on the altar, for a burnt-offering, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the LORD.

The burnt offering of the bull above was brought by very important people or by the community. The average man brings from the flock, a person with smaller substance brings from the fowl  and the poor man only a flour offering or Mincha.

10 And if his offering be of the flock, whether of the sheep, or of the goats, for a burnt-offering, he shall offer it a male without blemish. 11 And he shall slaughter it on the side of the altar northward before the LORD; and Aaron's sons, the priests, shall dash its blood against the altar round about. 12 And he shall cut it into its pieces; and the priest shall lay them, with its head and its suet, in order on the wood that is on the fire which is upon the altar. 13 But the inwards and the legs shall he wash with water; and the priest shall offer the whole, and make it smoke upon the altar; it is a burnt-offering, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the LORD.
14 And if his offering to the LORD be a burnt-offering of fowls, then he shall bring his offering of turtle-doves, or of young pigeons. 15 And the priest shall bring it unto the altar, and pinch off its head, and make it smoke on the altar; and the blood thereof shall be drained out on the side of the altar.

This is not breaking the neck but instead of a slaughter knife, the thumb nail is filed down sharp and thin like a slaughter knife and used on the neck of the chicken. The process is different from Schectim, slaughter, which is done with a special knife. The process when doing it to a fowl is known as Melecha.

16 And he shall take away its crop with the feathers thereof, and cast it beside the altar on the east part, in the place of the ashes. 17 And he shall rend it by the wings thereof, but shall not divide it asunder; and the priest shall make it smoke upon the altar, upon the wood that is upon the fire; it is a burnt-offering, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD.
2:1 And when any one brings a meal-offering unto the LORD, his offering shall be of fine flour; and he shall pour oil upon it, and put frankincense thereon. 2 And he shall bring it to Aaron's sons the priests; and he shall take thereout his handful of the fine flour thereof, and of the oil thereof, together with all the frankincense thereof; and the priest shall make the memorial-part thereof smoke upon the altar, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the LORD. 3 But that which is left of the meal-offering shall be Aaron's and his sons'; it is a thing most holy of the offerings of the LORD made by fire. 4 And when thou brings a meal-offering baked in the oven, it shall be unleavened cakes of fine flour mingled with oil, or unleavened wafers spread with oil. 5 And if thy offering be a meal-offering baked on a griddle, it shall be of fine flour unleavened, mingled with oil. 6 Thou shalt break it in pieces, and pour oil thereon; it is a meal-offering.  7 And if thy offering be a meal-offering of the stewing-pan, it shall be made of fine flour with oil. 8 And thou shalt bring the meal-offering that is made of these things unto the LORD; and it shall be presented unto the priest, and he shall bring it unto the altar. 9 And the priest shall take off from the meal-offering the memorial-part thereof, and shall make it smoke upon the altar--an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the LORD. 10 But that which is left of the meal-offering shall be Aaron's and his sons'; it is a thing most holy of the offerings of the LORD made by fire. 11 No meal-offering, which ye shall bring unto the LORD, shall be made with leaven; for ye shall make no leaven, nor any honey, smoke as an offering made by fire unto the LORD.

Except for Pessach, bread is kosher and honey is kosher yet for the Mizbayach it was kosher for Pessach the whole year around and honey was not used.

Or any honey: Any sweet fruit extract is called honey.

12 As an offering of first-fruits ye may bring them unto the LORD; but they shall not come up for a sweet savor on the altar.

The time for this starts at Shavuos and the giving of the Bikurim end at Sukkos and the mentioning of the Mitzvah and more details will appear at the end of Sefer Vayikra and the confession in Devarim.

13 And every meal-offering of your shalt thou season with salt; neither shalt thou suffer the salt of the covenant of thy God to be lacking from thy meal-offering; with all thy offerings thou shalt offer salt. 14 And if thou bring a meal-offering of first-fruits unto the LORD, thou shalt bring for the meal-offering of thy first-fruits corn in the ear parched with fire, even groats of the fresh ear. 15 And thou shalt put oil upon it, and lay frankincense thereon; it is a meal-offering. 16 And the priest shall make the memorial-part of it smoke, even of the groats thereof, and of the oil thereof, with all the frankincense thereof; it is an offering made by fire unto the LORD.

The groats came from the Omer of barley gathered for the offering for the 50 days until Shavuos when we start the Bikurim offerings continuing until Sukkos.
3:1 And if his offering be a sacrifice of peace-offerings: if he offer of the herd, whether male or female, he shall offer it without blemish before the LORD.

The Korban Shalomim and the Thanksgiving Offering, Todah, are given from both male and female this is not like other offerings that are only male such as the first born or Korban Bechor.   

2 And he shall lay his hand upon the head of his offering, and slaughter it at the door of the tent of meeting; and Aaron's sons the priests shall dash the blood against the altar round about. 3 And he shall present of the sacrifice of peace-offerings an offering made by fire unto the LORD: the fat that covers the inwards, and all the fat that is upon the inwards, 4 and the two kidneys, and the fat that is on them, which is by the loins, and the lobe above the liver, which he shall take away hard by the kidneys. 5 And Aaron's sons shall make it smoke on the altar upon the burnt-offering, which is upon the wood that is on the fire; it is an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the LORD.

Forbidden fat is called Chelev and also forbidden is tail fat which is called Aleeyah and is forbidden. There are a few sentences in the Gemara which warns against eating Chelev with meat but the spelling is the same as Chalav, milk, and without vowels one has to read it very carefully in the context. For surely Chelev and meat and Chalav and meat are forbidden.

An aside note here: There is an Israel TV Show that is very popular called Master Chief. They threw off the Orthodox Jew when he refused to make a yogurt topping for their meat meal of course PC they used a different excuse. I am not one who usually censors for others TV shows but this is disgusting for an Israeli show in a country where most people observe Kashrus to produce such things. In my mind it is worse than the movies that show immodest things as everybody knows that such and such an actress if not near them but the yogurt and meat are available.

6 And if his offering for a sacrifice of peace-offerings unto the LORD be of the flock, male or female, he shall offer it without blemish. 7 If he bring a lamb for his offering, then shall he present it before the LORD. 8 And he shall lay his hand upon the head of his offering, and kill it before the tent of meeting; and Aaron's sons shall dash the blood thereof against the altar round about. 9 And he shall present of the sacrifice of peace-offerings an offering made by fire unto the LORD: the fat thereof, the fat tail entire, which he shall take away hard by the rump-bone; and the fat that covers the inwards, and all the fat that is upon the inwards,

This is the forbidden Aleeyah which I mentioned above.

10 and the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, which is by the loins, and the lobe above the liver, which he shall take away by the kidneys. 11 And the priest shall make it smoke upon the altar; it is the food of the offering made by fire unto the LORD. 12 And if his offering be a goat, then he shall present it before the LORD. 13 And he shall lay his hand upon the head of it, and kill it before the tent of meeting; and the sons of Aaron shall dash the blood thereof against the altar round about. 14 And he shall present thereof his offering, even an offering made by fire unto the LORD: the fat that covers the inwards, and all the fat that is upon the inwards, 15 and the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, which is by the loins, and the lobe above the liver, which he shall take away by the kidneys. 16 And the priest shall make them smoke upon the altar; it is the food of the offering made by fire, for a sweet savor; all the fat is the LORD'S.

Sweet savor - Although many of my friends like the vegetarian life style and I do a lot of healthy vegetarian things this Pasuk makes me think that it is in the nature of mankind from creation to like meat.

17 It shall be a perpetual statute throughout your generations in all your dwellings, that ye shall eat neither fat nor blood.

4:1 And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying: 2 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying: If any one shall sin through error, in any of the things which the LORD hath commanded not to be done, and shall do any one of them:

A Korban Chatas for doing a violation by accident that if aware would not do it. Example one forgot it was Shabbos went and picked an apple from his tree and ate it. Or too much Purim drinking and accidently violates a prohibition with Kares.

3 if the anointed priest shall sin so as to bring guilt on the people, then let him offer for his sin, which he hath sinned, a young bullock without blemish unto the LORD for a sin-offering. 4 And he shall bring the bullock unto the door of the tent of meeting before the LORD; and he shall lay his hand upon the head of the bullock, and kill the bullock before the LORD. 5 And the anointed priest shall take of the blood of the bullock, and bring it to the tent of meeting. 6 And the priest shall dip his finger in the blood, and sprinkle of the blood seven times before the LORD, in front of the veil of the sanctuary. 7 And the priest shall put of the blood upon the horns of the altar of sweet incense before the LORD, which is in the tent of meeting; and all the remaining blood of the bullock shall he pour out at the base of the altar of burnt-offering, which is at the door of the tent of meeting. 8 And all the fat of the bullock of the sin-offering he shall take off from it; the fat that covers  the inwards, and all the fat that is upon the inwards, 9 and the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, which is by the loins, and the lobe above the liver, which he shall take away by the kidneys, 10 as it is taken off from the ox of the sacrifice of peace-offerings; and the priest shall make them smoke upon the altar of burnt-offering. 11 But the skin of the bullock, and all its flesh, with its head, and with its legs, and its inwards, and its dung, 12 even the whole bullock shall he carry forth without the camp unto a clean place, where the ashes are poured out, and burn it on wood with fire; where the ashes are poured out shall it be burnt.
13 And if the whole congregation of Israel shall err, the thing being hid from the eyes of the assembly, and do any of the things which the LORD hath commanded not to be done, and are guilty:

The…community of Israel: This refers to the [Great] Sanhedrin [the Supreme Court of Israel, seated at the Holy Temple]. — [Torath Kohanim 4:241] Because a matter was hidden: [This means that the Sanhedrin] issued an erroneous decision regarding any matter in the Torah that incurs the penalty of excision, by declaring that matter permissible. — [Hor. 7b] The congregation, and they and they commit: meaning that the community acted upon their instruction. — [Hor. 3a]

14 when the sin wherein they have sinned is known, then the assembly shall offer a young bullock for a sin-offering, and bring it before the tent of meeting. 15 And the elders of the congregation shall lay their hands upon the head of the bullock before the LORD; and the bullock shall be killed before the LORD. 16 And the anointed priest shall bring of the blood of the bullock to the tent of meeting. 17 And the priest shall dip his finger in the blood, and sprinkle it seven times before the LORD, in front of the veil. 18 And he shall put of the blood upon the horns of the altar which is before the LORD, that is in the tent of meeting, and all the remaining blood shall he pour out at the base of the altar of burnt-offering, which is at the door of the tent of meeting. 19 And all the fat thereof shall he take off from it, and make it smoke upon the altar. 20 Thus shall he do with the bullock; as he did with the bullock of the sin-offering, so shall he do with this; and the priest shall make atonement for them, and they shall be forgiven. 21 And he shall carry forth the bullock without the camp, and burn it as he burned the first bullock; it is the sin-offering for the assembly.
22 When a ruler sin, and does through error any one of all the things which the LORD his God hath commanded not to be done, and is guilty:

This is the responsibility of the king for his rash behavior.

23 if his sin, wherein he hath sinned, be known to him, he shall bring for his offering a goat, a male without blemish. 24 And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the goat, and kill it in the place where they kill the burnt-offering before the LORD; it is a sin-offering. 25 And the priest shall take of the blood of the sin-offering with his finger, and put it upon the horns of the altar of burnt-offering, and the remaining blood thereof shall he pour out at the base of the altar of burnt-offering. 26 And all the fat thereof shall he make smoke upon the altar, as the fat of the sacrifice of peace-offerings; and the priest shall make atonement for him as concerning his sin, and he shall be forgiven.

27 And if any one of the common people sin through error, in doing any of the things which the LORD hath commanded not to be done, and be guilty:

This is the Korban Asham or guilt offering and I want to write more next week on Chapter 5 of this Parsha so I will continue.

Pessach is coming: How to Kosher a Kitchen

Some points condensed from the above site: When in doubt consult your local Orthodox Rabbi.

Silver, stainless steel, and plastic flatware may be kashered.  The process begins with a thorough cleaning, after which the utensil should not be used for 24 hours.  A pot of water is brought to a rolling boil, and the pieces of flatware are dropped into the water one at a time. The Communities before Pessach use metal barrels which everything can be dipped into with a thick screen mesh and clamps to raise and lower objects into the water. If the water stops boiling at any point, one must wait until it returns to a boil before putting in any more flatware.  The custom is to rinse the flatware with cold water after kashering.
Pots and Pans
Standard metal pots are kashered in the same manner as flatware; consult with your Rabbi if the pot which requires kashering is too large to fit into any other pot of boiling water.  Enameled pots and glass pots (e.g. Pyrex) cannot be kashered.
In general, baking, roasting and frying pans cannot be kashered unless they are always used with generous amounts of oil or other grease when cooking.  If that is the case, they can be kashered via libun kal which involves cleaning the pans well, not using them for 24 hours and then putting them on an open flame until both the inside and outside of the pan are hot enough to singe paper. The general rule is that if the pot was used on the stove one has to heat it to Libun - hot enough for a spark to fly if hit with a metal object or singe paper - otherwise if the pot or pan is new just a Kosher Mikvah is necessary like with new dishes. The object is to remove either all Chametz or Trafe ingredients. Note: if the pot or pan is bent out of shape or filthy this not enough and an Orthodox Rabbi should be consulted.
Drinking Glasses
The Ashkenazic custom is that drinking glasses made of glass cannot be kashered if they were ever used for hot beverages or washed with hot water, such as in a dishwasher.  If they were never used or washed hot, contact your Rabbi for directions as to how they may be kashered.  Drinking glasses made of plastic can be kashered in the same manner as flatware outlined above. In the case of people converting or people with financial straits should consult their local Orthodox Rabbi if they can go according the Sephardic Customs.
Usually the regular sink is scrubbed with a chlorine chemical such as bleach or abrasive material that is sprinkled on and any Chametz or Trafe is rendered unfit for a dog to eat. Close to boiling water is poured in the sink. Since a Porcelain Sink cannot be koshered most people put a plastic grid on the bottom or a removable plastic sink that goes into the regular sink. If you do not have one special store near you, google a “one stop Judaica shop” and check for sinks. It will either have a Chet for Chalav aka Milk or Bet for Basar aka Meat or written in English. It may have the local language printed on it. Usually one places also for extra stringency a plastic grid underneath just in case it cracks during Pessach. Example Sink Base Grid about a cm to two cm high about a half inch and then the plastic sink for Pessach.
Stovetops and Ovens
Stovetops (ranges) and ovens may be kashered, and the process for doing so is as follows:
The most common type of stovetop is a metal grate over an open flame, which is situated on a porcelain surface.  Others have electric coils in the place of an open flame or have a glass surface covering electric coils, and the most popular brands for this type of stovetop are Corning and Ceran.
The kashering of all of these stovetops is similar.  All parts of the stovetop should be thoroughly cleaned, including scraping residual food from the surface and catch-tray, and not used for 24 hours.  Then the fire or coil should be turned to its maximum temperature for one hour.  Finally, the knobs, catch trays and all areas between the burners should be treated as non-kashered and kosher food and utensils should not be placed on those areas.  [If kosher items were placed on that area, consult with your Rabbi as to their status.] 
Non self-cleaning oven               
The interior and exterior surfaces of the oven must be thoroughly cleaned, the oven should not be used for a full 24 hours, and then turn it should be turned on to its highest temperature for one hour. 
Self-cleaning oven
A complete self-clean cycle should be run with the racks inside the oven, and then the oven may be used without covering the racks.  This kashering may be done even if the oven was not left unused for 24 hours.  If the racks are not inside the oven while the self-clean cycle is run, the racks should be kashered separately.
Microwave oven
The microwave’s glass plate cannot be kashered (or used) and should be removed before kashering begins.    To Kasher  the appliance itself, the microwave must be thoroughly cleaned and not used for 24 hours.  Then, a cup of water should be boiled in the chamber for an extended amount of time, until the chamber fills with steam and the water overflows from the cup.  If a microwave has a metal grate, it should be kashered in a pot of hot water as described in the Flatware section above.
For convection microwave ovens, the same kashering process as a conventional oven should be followed, paying particular attention to cleaning out the chamber and fan assembly.
Note if one is buying a new gas range, one should ask for a second set of a grids and catch trays when applicable for Pessach it saves time and energy as if one defers this the model may not exist next year or the year after when one has more cash saved up.

Refrigerators and Freezers

All parts of refrigerators and freezers must be thoroughly cleaned and washed, including storage bins.


The procedure for kashering a countertop is to clean it thoroughly, not use it for 24 hours, and then carefully pour boiling water on all surfaces.  Once the countertop is kashered, it may be used without being covered.  As noted at the beginning of this article, one may not kasher utensils made of certain materials (ceramic, cement, glass), materials which are not robust enough to withstanding kashering, and any utensil that has cracks, nicks or scratches where pieces of food might get stuck.  These same restrictions apply to countertops.
In any situation where the countertop cannot or will not be kashered, it may only be used after being covered with a non-porous material which will not easily rip or tear.
There are many countertop materials available for home use today, with the old favorite being plastic laminate, manufactured by laminating a hard plastic material onto a thin piece of wood.  Some popular brands of laminate are Formica, Pionite, Wilsonart, and Nevamar.  In some cases, there are seams where two pieces of laminate meet, creating the potential for food collecting in that area, and special attention should be paid to cleaning those seams. 
Butcher block or wood surfaces are once again becoming popular.  Wood may be kashered only if it contains no cracks that might trap food.  Some of the popular wood brands on the market are John Boos, Craftart, Spekva, and Omega.
Many kitchens use natural stone such as granite, marble, limestone, soapstone, slate, and onyx for countertops.  All of these may be kashered regardless of which sealant is used to coat the stone. 
Another material used for countertops is quartz resin, a man-made material made to look like granite or marble. It is different than natural stone in that it is not porous. Therefore the surface does not need to be sealed. Some common brands are Cambria, Silestone, Zodiaq, and Caesar Stone. These may be kashered.
Similarly, there is another countertop material which is made to look like stone but it is actually an acrylic or polyester and therefore easy to maintain. Some popular brands are Corian, Staron, Swanstone, Gibraltar, Surrell, and Avonite.  These materials may be kashered if they do not contain any scratches or stains.
There are also glass, ceramic, cement, and porcelain countertops available, with porous grout between each tile.  Buddy Rhodes and Cheng Design are popular brands of cement countertop.  These countertops may not be kashered and must be covered.   
While not used as often in a home, stainless steel, copper, and zinc countertops are also available, and they may be kashered.
There can always be unique situations that might arise in one’s own home. When in doubt, contact your local Orthodox Rabbi. Special thanks to Rick Glickman of “Dream Kitchens” for his assistance with our countertop research. Many pious Jews for Pessach have linoleum or put down thick aluminum foil over the counter tops even if they are koshered and scrubbed lest they have missed a place and if one has the ability time wise to do so. Linoleum can be used from year to year and saves a lot of time but one needs stowage space for it.

From: Naftali Bennett February 27 It has been fifteen years since Brigadier General Erez Gerstein fell defending his country - a small story about a great commander

I first met Erez Gerstein back in 1993-1994 when he was a Colonel, commander of the Eastern Sector Brigade... in southern Lebanon, and I was a young Deputy Platoon Commander in Maglan. I was surprised that my brigade commander was devoting half an hour of his own time to give me a personal briefing before a mission near Rachaya - Aiyash. It was an unusual thing for a high-ranking commander to give a young officer pointers on how to deal with a certain situation and how to react. Erez's briefing was different than that of any commander I had met before.

Unlike all the other officers at the time who emphasized caution, safety, and the necessity of returning all soldiers safely from their missions, Erez’s message was simple: Kill terrorists. Do not be afraid. He also knew exactly what to emphasize in every situation: Where to bypass an electric pole where the Hezbollah may be preparing an ambush, where to stop and conduct surveillance, how forces should be deployed, etc.
With crazy hair, because he did not like to wear a helmet, with a gun in his hand, because Gerstein refused to use a strap for his weapon ("A warrior must hold his own gun"), with eternal optimism and an approach of conciseness for engaging in combat, Gerstein reassured the thousands of soldiers who served under him.
For the next four years, even after he was promoted to commander of the Lebanon Liaison Unit, I always hoped my missions would be in his sector. I knew, as did every IDF fighter in southern Lebanon during those years, that with Erez Gerstein one is in good hands.
On one mission we got mixed up on the way back, and we had to backtrack many kilometers on foot, instead of driving. Another commander was supervising from our operations room. Suddenly, out of nowhere, Erez showed up with his communications liaison, to see for himself that business was ticking. When I saw him, I knew things would be OK.
He once said in an interview: "A commander is tested by his ability to influence and to be at the point of decision. It's scary, annoying, and unpleasant. This is how a commander is measured: How he enters missions, how he functions during missions, and how he returns from missions... I'm not afraid of fire. It does not bother me at all. This is because of my recognition that if I'm afraid it will harm my operational capability. Those in key command positions should know that they might be killed. This is just part of our life".
Erez Gerstein was killed in 1999 by a road-side bomb while driving on the Hasbaya - Marjayoun line in southern Lebanon. Chief Warrant Officer Imad Abu-Rish, his communications liaison Staff Sergeant Omer EI-Kabetz, and Voice of Israel (Israeli radio) veteran Ilan Roeh also lost their lives in that attack.
I have often thought to myself, as probably many who were under his command have, how the IDF would look today if Erez was alive, had stayed on the fast-track, and became the IDF Chief of Staff. ** May his memory be blessed.

Naftali Bennett : Meet Moshe L, a Haredi father of five from Ashdod. (True story)
Moshe was born in 1973 in Bnei Brak to a family of Ger Hasidim. Over the years he studied in highly regarded yeshivot, even after marrying at age 21. He went on to study at ...prestigious institutions until he received his Rabbinical certification and ordination as a Judge in Rabbinical Court.

Five years after he married, after three children, Moshe realized that he should look for work with a salary that would be significantly better than the stipend provided to him at his Kollel. He consulted with his Rebbe, and with his approval began to study evenings at Haredi centers for professional training. In the beginning he went through a preparatory course that helped him close the gaps. Afterwards he took programming courses and eventually graduated with a degree in software engineering.
In 2001, Moshe started working for Elta, an Israeli Aerospace Industry company. They were looking for talented employees, and were happy to have a Haredi employee. At first they might have been a little hesitant at Elta, but after a brief adjustment period, working together, they realized that the gaps were mostly in their imaginations. Elta provided Moshe with a supportive work environment, which included Mehadrin kosher meals and the ability to pray in a minyan.

Elta probably realized that over time it would pay off.
In Moshe’s case, it did not take much time: Six months after his hire, Moshe won an Entrepreneurship Award for software he developed, and has since won seven other prizes. His latest prize was the Employee of the Year Award in the defense sector, given to him by President Peres. Today Moshe is team leader of the company’s development, and he still finds time to attend regular classes in Kollel.
Moshe is an extraordinary story in the Haredi sector. We use a variety of tools to help thousands of "Moshes" who are just waiting to fulfill their potential.
Story Credit: Samuel Neaman Institute at the Technion
He was not the only one at IAI and there are plenty but most came from the USA he is one of the few Sabras.

Although the courts found the Jewish man not guilty, he could not carry the pains of the guilt that he killed an old man. It gave him no peace and caused him to lose his appetite. He was unable to sleep for weeks.
He decided to seek counsel from the internationally known sage, Rabbi Chaim Kanievsky of Bnei Brak. He wrote him a letter asking for a tikun - plan for soul-rectification -- because he had accidentally killed a non-Jew.
The Rabbi wrote back to him. His response consisted of one word: "Amalek" ** The Jew was disappointed. He could not understand this answer and continued suffering with sleepless nights.
** [The original Amalek was a grandson of Esau. He and his descendents hate the Jews and what we stand for so much that they constantly attack us. On the Shabbat preceding Purim, called "Zachor," we read the biblical passage (Deut 25:17-19) commanding us to remember their evil and to obliterate them. Haman, the villain of the Book of Esther, was a descendant of Amalek. Hitler may have been another. -ed.]
At some point he decided to move away from his town to begin a new life. Maybe then he could stop thinking about the incident. He began searching for a new location and found a house in a nearby town that appealed to him. The owners told him that they were eager to get rid of this house which they inherited from their dead father who had been killed in a car accident.
Could it possibly be? After a short investigation, the Jew discovered that the residence belonged to the old man whom he had accidentally killed! Soon after that, in the basement of the house he found materials belonging to the deceased non-Jewish man. He was shocked to find a photograph of the old man from when he was a young man, proudly wearing an SS uniform, standing next to evil Hitler, may his name be eternally blotted out.
It turned out that this old man had been an SS officer in the Nazi army during the Holocaust years. After the war, he made his escape to the United States and hid his past. Other documents he had been preserving included a list of the names of all the Jews he personally murdered, May G-d Al-Mighty avenge their blood.
When the Jew read the names of the martyrs that were murdered, he found both of his parent's names on the list!
The Al-mighty had indeed allotted to him to be the instrument to avenge his parents' blood! It was then that he understood Rabbi Chaim Kanievsky's one word answer.
Adapted by Yerachmiel Tilles from an anonymous translation of the scan of a Hebrew newspaper article that appeared on . Submitted by Jody Eisenman.
Rabbi Chaim Kanievsky is a world-renowned Torah scholar and decisor of Jewish law, living in Bnei Brak, Israel. He is the author of several important works of Jewish law, such as Derech Emunoh (on agricultural laws) and Shoneh Halachos, a systematic presentation of the popular code of laws, Mishnah Berurah. He is the son of Rabbi Yaakov Yisrael Kanievsky ("the Steipler"), the son-in-law of Rabbi Yosef Sholom Eliashiv, a leading rabbinical authority in Jerusalem, and nephew of Rabbi Avraham Yeshayahu Karelitz , a leading Torah scholar in Israel in the mid 20th century known as the "Chazon Ish". Rabbi Kanievsky is known to refrain from engaging in politics. Thousands of people visit the holy rabbi yearly, seeking Torah oriented advice on.

A Martyr of Magnitude also by Rabbi Tilles Shlita

Doron Mahareta of blessed and saintly memory, H.y.d.,** was one of the eight Yeshiva students that were massacred less than a month ago in Yeshivat Mercaz HaRav in Jerusalem. He was 26 years old, the only non-teenager of the group.
One evening during the week of mourning at the Mahareta home in Ashdod, one of the rabbis from the yeshiva, Rabbi Hauer, told a truly amazing story about Doron's dedication to learning Torah. Every single type of Jew was represented there, and sitting together, from Ethiopians to Polish Chassidim, from knit kippot to Yerushalmi white kippot, from jeans and sandals to long black frocks. Someone remarked on the irony that it takes such a tragic event to draw everyone so close together. The story brings to mind the Talmud's account (see tractate Yoma, 35b) of Hillel's near freezing on the roof of Shmaya and Avtalion's Yeshiva, when he became covered with snow while listening intently through the skylight.
Doron wanted to lean Torah in Mercaz HaRav, one of the strongest of Israel's yeshivas. But, since his early schooling was in Ethiopia, he lacked a strong background in Gemara. The Yeshiva rejected him. He refused to be discouraged. He asked, "If you won't let me learn Torah, will you let me wash the dishes in the mess hall?"
For a year and a half, Doron washed dishes. But, he spent every spare minute in the study hall. He inquired what the yeshiva boys were learning, and spent most of the nights and all of his Shabbatot with his head immersed in the Gemara, learning what they learned.
One day, the "dish washer" asked the head of the yeshiva to test him. The Rosh Yeshiva politely smiled and tried to gently dismiss Doron, but Doron wouldn't budge. He forced the Rosh Yeshiva into a Torah discussion.
The next day, he was no longer a dish washer but a full-fledged yeshiva student.
On weekends, when Doron would come home to visit his family, he'd spend the entire Shabbat either in the large Melitzer shul or the neighboring small Gerrer shul learning Shulchan Aruch ("The Code of Jewish Law" - composed by Rabbi Yosef Caro here in Tsfat - ed.) and its commentaries. Three weeks ago, he finished the entire Shulchan Aruch and its principle commentaries. Doron achieved in his tender 26 years what others don't attain in 88 years.***
It would not be a great surprise if Doron were a reincarnation of Hillel. Remember him when you think to opt out of the evening's Torah study and go watch TV. This martyr of such magnitude was truly an unblemished sacrifice, who gave his life for all of us. May his holy soul beg mercy for the grieving nation he left behind. Amen.
Adapted and supplemented by Yerachmiel Tilles from an anonymous submission, subsequently revealed to have been originally written by the one-and-only Lazer Brody and first posted on (Even more subsequently, the photo was traced to Tsafrir Abayov.)
Editor's notes:
** "Hashem yakem damo" - "May the Al-mighty avenge his blood" - an attachment used only for those martyred because of their Jewishness.
*** This story has been all over the Jewish blogs (web logs).One blogger, at, adds some perspective:
The Shulchan Aruch (Code of Jewish Law) is a massive work [and the attached commentaries make it much more so - yt]. The average Orthodox rabbi doesn't have to know the complete Shulchan Aruch to earn ordination.
It is as if a student who hadn't taken pre-calculus in high school went to MIT, worked as a dishwasher and then 7 years later emerged with a PhD in mathematics. It takes a tremendous amount of dedication and perseverance to accomplish what Doron did. He stands as one more example of the tremendous loss earlier this month when a murderer started shooting innocent young men studying.

Brielle: Can someone please explain to me for what reason that pieces of broken poetry are placed on the deceased by the Tahara sacrament, where it comes from? How it evolved, what is it called?
Rabbi Rachamim Pauli It is to remove the attachment of the soul to the body and material possessions in Yerushalayim a coin is chopped into 7 pieces and placed a males and the Chevra Kedisha walks around the body 7 times and throws the coins off in different directions to divest the soul of an attachment to this world.

I have the highest respect for this Hesder Rabbi who takes the middle ground between the Orthodox Camps he is also one of the founders of Arutz 7 and the father of the Rosh Yeshiva of my son after Rabbi Shlomo Goren passed away.

After his blunders in the finance ministry and attacks on the religious Yair Lapid is the least popular Minister:

Eric Einstein remained non-religious but his best friend Uri Zohar became an ultra-Orthodox Rabbi. In 1985 one out of the two Zohar boys would marry one of the Einstein sisters and in the end both sisters married Zohar boys.

Spring is just around the corner in the States and sort of here in Israel. I fortunately don’t have to worry about dating or finding a Shidduch for my daughter. However, I do have some non-aggressive but horrible first date situations that have happened and do happen. In the first days of computer dating back in my freshman or sophomore year in College there was a fellow named Arthur who tried for a computer date. We were young and I think he put down on the application what he wanted was a female like himself. Well the computer dug up twins. So we made it a double blind date. I was somewhere between 150 to 160 lbs. and Arthur a bit thinner. What we met was two girls who looked anorexic and we took them to a horror movie the monster in the movie looked better than them. At least now there is the internet with Skype face to face or photos that one is not in complete shock. In fact on most dating sites today there are a number of photos so one can tell if the woman is selling you 120 lbs. of flesh or a woman of valor or a pleasantly plump person. Based on the hobbies and interests and education you get to figure out if you are compatible intellectually. The last real blind date was a fellow that my friend wanted to set up with my daughter. I knew the uncle and the family was good. I was told he was a bit chubby like I was a number of years back like 185 to 190 lbs. and my height. Well the fellow was tall than I perhaps 250 lbs. and my daughter is quite thin. Eventually, she married a tall thin fellow like 15.5 inch shirts not 16 or 16.5 like my thin son.  Well it will be in a few years, her son and daughter will start looking for marriage and if the Charedim forbid the internet more funny adventures.

Another story of 33 years ago which led to a funny situation was a friend of mine who was sort of egg shaped in build. A nice non-religious fellow and high paid technician but not the tall dark and handsome that the gals dream of, so sometimes he would meet women either twice his weight or they would say that they were really not interested in dating and that they were doing this for their father. All sorts of excuses and only because of a physical nature that interfered with both of them.

It’s been about 38 or 39 years since I was around there:

The proofs that Christian Missionaries state are out of context.

Bang-bang boom, Alice you are going to the moon! Israel to put a commercial space craft on the moon by 2015:,7340,L-4496059,00.html

Inyanay Diyoma

There is always a danger of the news that I start off with becoming stale after a week. However, when the nations are fighting each other we are told to get ready for Gog and Magog and Moshiach. Still it is not quite yet. The Russians are coming:’s-creeping-invasion-continues-

Arabs burn down a police outpost in Yerushalayim, women afraid to go out at night.

We hope that Lebanon understands hints:,7340,L-4493653,00.html

Left wing Kibbutzim exist on Arab land and their bastion in Tel Aviv all of Yehuda and Shomron were legally bought.

Anti-Semitism in the Ukraine moves to Crimea:,7340,L-4493749,00.html

Don’t say that you were not warned in 2008:

Syrian Rebels keeping tabs on Al Qaeda:,7340,L-4494161,00.html

US unmanned security against terrorists or enemy ground forces:

From Albert: All anti-Semites are invited to boycott this medical lung function device:

Palestinians: Man killed in IAF strike in Gaza Strip Israeli jets target terror cell in northern Gaza shortly after Palestinians attempt to launch rocket; Palestinian sources claim one man killed, several others injured in strike.,7340,L-4494730,00.html

Code Red in Ashkelon as rocket misses the city:

While we slept in Israel, 121:4 4 Behold, He that keeps (guards) Israel does neither slumber nor sleep. They suffered 2 dead and 2 wounded praise HASHEM Yisborach.


My wife and I drove road 443 Motzei Shabbos these are our nice neighborhood terrorists and if one gives them a State you can bet they will get worse and worse it is no game for the people in Israel there are times one cannot make any more concessions. And my son-in-law and two grandchildren on Sunday.

It took 16 years but at long last this Amalek is caught:,7340,L-4495290,00.html

IDF confronts Hezballah on the Golan:,7340,L-4495352,00.html

Too much meat or cheese is not good but the study does not say soy protein or fish. BTW Soy is a GMO product:

The house Yidden of the politicians go against Israel:

On Tuesday evening Netanyahu’s entrance into the Paramount Studios was delayed. Now we know why and long arm IDF operation 1500 km from Israel stopping a terrorist arms shipment to Sinai and Gaza:,7340,L-4495487,00.html related PM’s reaction: deeper analysis There are 175 kg of explosives in each of the M-302 rockets that Iran tried to smuggle into Gaza. Here is the in depth analysis:

Among other things PM Netanyahu warned: The ICBM’s that Iran is developing is not for Israel and half of Europe for we can be hit in any spot rather they are to send Nuclear Weapons delivery to the USA:

Terror by gas explosions easier to get to do:

Pollard in the hospital he is on my prayer list above:

Israel now has three zones on the Golan Heights – Hezballah in the North, Free Syrian Army in the Center and Al Qaeda or Jihad in the South:,7340,L-4495742,00.html

Taking liberalism and freedom so far as to jeopardize your nation:

You listed and followed US pressure so long that you lost your own party from under your nose:

Now for M. Wolfberg’s “Watch your step”

 Good Shabbos Everyone.  The Torah tells us this week how Moshe Rabeinu set up the Mishkan (the Holy Tabernacle).  At the conclusion of the account of setting up the Mishkan, the Torah tells us how the Shechina - Hashem's holy spirit filled the Mishkan.         
        The Torah tells us that the Shechina dwelt on the Mishkan (the Holy Tabernacle) of the Bnai Yisroel "throughout their journeys."  (Shemos 40:38)   Because we know that the lessons of the Torah are eternal, we can learn out an inspirational lesson from this verse.  Namely, that wherever the Bnai Yisroel will travel in exile, the Holy Shechina will escort them, as is hinted to in the verse "throughout their journeys."  The following amazing true story shows how the Shechina escorts even those Jews who are the farthest from Hashem.
             A secular Jew in Israel from a Chassidic background once related the following story about his son.  The man's son was a commander of a Tank Artillery division.  Sadly, the Army commander had become vehemently anti-religious over the years. He even went so far as to complain about a photograph of his grandfather which hung on the wall in his father's house. The photograph of the grandfather, in traditional Chassidic garb with peyos and a long beard, was particularly offensive to the young soldier. "That man is a barbarian. Take the picture down", he would shriek.
          One day, the soldier became religious! What happened? It was June 1967, the Six Day War, in the Sinai Desert. The tanks were all spread out. If attacked, they would have to regroup and fight together. Suddenly, Egyptian tanks approached. The commander turned his tank around and raced back to the platoon. The fastest way was straight across an open stretch.
         Suddenly, he saw an old man davening, enwrapped in tallis and tefillin, right in his path. "Doesn't the fool have any place better to pray than in the middle of the desert", he screamed. "I'm going to run him over." But at the last minute he swerved to avoid the old man.
          The Egyptian tank in hot pursuit behind him didn't have any such tinge of sympathy. As it ran over the old Jew it exploded into a fiery inferno as it tripped a landmine underneath.
           When the soldier visited his father after the war, the photo was still on the wall. Although he had seen it hundreds of times before, the face familiar in a strange way. He recognized the face of the old Jew who was praying in the desert. "I realized that he was praying for me that I should live", explained the newly religious soldier, "And I want to be like him."
 Good Shabbos Everyone.
M. Wolfberg is sponsored by: In Memory of Dov Behr ben Chaim Wolfberg In Memory of a fine person and a good Yitzchok ben Reb Shimon (Friedman) of blessed memory Refuah Shleima to Reb Mordechai Mendel ben Tziporah Yitta  Refuah Shleima to Leah bas Tziporah

Have a wonderful Shabbos,
Rachamim Pauli