Prayers for Men: Yoel HaCohain ben Henya, Shalom Charles ben Gracia, Yosef ben Esther, Daniel ben Rivka, Moshe ben Briendel, Avrum ben Fagel,
Reuven Shmuel Avraham ben Yosilfina returned his soul to the CREATOR.
Women: Karen Neshama bas Esther Ruth, Chaya Melecha Rachel bas Baila Alta, Rachel bas Chana, Hodaya Nirit bas Mazel Yaish, Rivka bas Idit, Tsvia Simcha bas Devorah Yachad, Miriam bas Irene Taita Malka, Shulamis bas Etta, Chana Friedel bas Sara, Esther bas Alice, Golda Shulamis bas Celia, Devorah bas Sara
The following persons are recovering from long term non-threatening injuries and need Psalms. Binum Benyamin Tuvia ben Chana Friedel, Avraham HaCohain ben Yocheved, Melech David ben Sulah Pearla,
For those who want to know about the importance of prayers for the people who are ill from afar see the article and story of Rabbi S. Alpern with links below.
1:1 These are the words which Moses spoke unto all Israel beyond the Jordan; in the wilderness, in the Arabah, over against Suph, between Paran and Tophel, and Laban, and Hazeroth, and Di-zahab.
All these places are hints of impropriety of the Bnei Yisrael. Dealing with minor things and making complains, glutton behavior and the golden calf.
Mt. Seir is opposite Eilat and Kadesh-Barnea in modern times is the continuation of the Philadelphia Road on the Egyptian Border or about 20 to 25 KM from Rafah Gaza what is probably the end of road 40 in the south at Nitzana. I found this interesting map of the travels in the last year from Kadesh-Barnea to the Golan at his non-Jewish site: http://www.bible.ca/archeology/bible-archeology-exodus-route-kadesh-barnea-jordan.htm
3 And it came to pass in the fortieth year, in the eleventh month, on the first day of the month, that Moses spoke unto the children of Israel, according unto all that the LORD had given him in commandment unto them; 4 after he had smitten Sihon the king of the Amorites, who dwelt in Heshbon, and Og the king of Bashan, who dwelt in Ashtaroth, at Edrei; 5 beyond the Jordan, in the land of Moab, took Moses upon him to expound this law, saying: 6 The LORD our God spoke unto us in Horeb, saying: 'Ye have dwelt long enough in this mountain; 7 turn you, and take your journey, and go to the hill-country of the Amorites and unto all the places nigh thereunto, in the Arabah, in the hill-country, and in the Lowland, and in the South, and by the sea-shore; the land of the Canaanites, and Lebanon, as far as the great river, the river Euphrates.
The Bnei Yisrael did not reach the Euphrates. Even last week it was mentioned an area below the Euphrates. So when will this be? It will be in the future. It is written this way and what will be with the Kurds there? An alliance a federation up to the Euphrates?
8 Behold, I have set the land before you: go in and possess the land which the LORD swore unto your fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give unto them and to their seed after them.' 9 And I spoke unto you at that time, saying: 'I am not able to bear you myself alone; 10 the LORD your God hath multiplied you, and, behold, ye are this day as the stars of heaven for multitude.-- 11 The LORD, the God of your fathers, make you a thousand times so many more as ye are, and bless you, as He hath promised you!-- 12 How can I myself alone bear your cumbrance, and your burden, and your strife?
Even with the Shechina present and miracles from Mitzrayim until the day Moshe spoke still there is strife. It is no surprise to us then that without the Mikdash to bring Shalom, the Temple has not yet been rebuilt.
13 Get you, from each one of your tribes, wise men, and understanding, and full of knowledge, and I will make them heads over you.' 14 And ye answered me, and said: 'The thing which thou hast spoken is good for us to do.' 15 So I took the heads of your tribes, wise men, and full of knowledge, and made them heads over you, captains of thousands, and captains of hundreds, and captains of fifties, and captains of tens, and officers, tribe by tribe. 16 And I charged your judges at that time, saying: 'Hear the causes between your brethren, and judge righteously between a man and his brother, and the stranger that is with him.
The Judges were more learned than most of their neighbors. If we are talking about one out of ten from the same family. One out of 50 from the same neighborhood. One out of 100 from the same area and one out of thousand still from the same tribe. So it could literally be part of the family. In fact it might lead to an internal family dispute if one was too close a relative. The law became that only from second cousin onward to be a witness and the same with judging unless like some Chassidic families do they let the Rebbe decide and they both consider him a fair judge.
17 Ye shall not respect persons in judgment; ye shall hear the small and the great alike; ye shall not be afraid of the face of any man; for the judgment is God's; and the cause that is too hard for you ye shall bring unto me, and I will hear it.' 18 And I commanded you at that time all the things which ye should do. 19 And we journeyed from Horev, and went through all that great and dreadful wilderness which ye saw, by the way to the hill-country of the Amorites, as the LORD our God commanded us; and we came to Kadesh-Barnea. 20 And I said unto you: 'Ye are come unto the hill-country of the Amorites, which the LORD our God giveth unto us. 21 Behold, the LORD thy God hath set the land before thee; go up, take possession, as the LORD, the God of thy fathers, hath spoken unto thee; fear not, neither be dismayed.' 22 And ye came near unto me every one of you, and said: 'Let us send men before us, that they may search the land for us, and bring us back word of the way by which we must go up, and the cities unto which we shall come.' 23 And the thing pleased me well; and I took twelve men of you, one man for every tribe;
They made a good case and a good presentation before me and I accepted that there should be guides on the way so that we know where the wells are and where the fortified cities are. With HASHEM on our side, we had the upper hand.
24 and they turned and went up into the mountains, and came unto the valley of Eshcol, and spied it out. 25 And they took of the fruit of the land in their hands, and brought it down unto us, and brought us back word, and said: 'Good is the land which the LORD our God giveth unto us.'
The initial reports of the spies were positive until they added their commentary about giants and the land eating up the (wicked) inhabitants were unnecessary additions to what was requested of the spies.
26 Yet ye would not go up, but rebelled against the commandment of the LORD your God; 27 and ye murmured in your tents, and said: 'Because the LORD hated us, He hath brought us forth out of the land of Egypt, to deliver us into the hand of the Amorites, to destroy us. 28 Whither are we going up? our brethren have made our heart to melt, saying: The people is greater and taller than we; the cities are great and fortified up to heaven; and moreover we have seen the sons of the Anakim there.' 29 Then I said unto you: 'Dread not, neither be afraid of them. 30 The LORD your God who goes before you, He shall fight for you, according to all that He did for you in Egypt before your eyes; 31 and in the wilderness, where thou hast seen how that the LORD thy God bore thee, as a man doth bear his son, in all the way that ye went, until ye came unto this place. 32 Yet in this thing ye do not believe the LORD your God, 33 Who went before you in the way, to seek you out a place to pitch your tents in: in fire by night, to show you by what way ye should go, and in the cloud by day.'
I pleaded with you. I called upon you to remember the miracles and that HASHEM fought for you but you refused to see the miracles and learn the history of HASHEM. I reminded you of the Chanchaga. Yet you refused and at this point HASHEM became wroth with you.
34 And the LORD heard the voice of your words, and was wroth, and swore, saying: 35 'Surely there shall not one of these men, even this evil generation, see the good land, which I swore to give unto your fathers, 36 save Caleb the son of Yephunneh, he shall see it; and to him will I give the land that he hath trodden upon, and to his children; because he hath wholly followed the LORD.' 37 Also the LORD was angry with me for your sakes, saying: Thou also shalt not go in thither; 38 Joshua the son of Nun, who stands before thee, he shall go in thither; encourage thou him, for he shall cause Israel to inherit it.
39 Moreover your little ones, that ye said should be a prey, and your children, that this day have no knowledge of good or evil, they shall go in thither, and unto them will I give it, and they shall possess it.
Your parents are gone and I have encountered the wrath of HASHEM too I therefore accept that I shall not enter the land and Yehoshua Bin Nun will lead you to the conquest.
40 But as for you, turn you, and take your journey into the wilderness by the way to the Red Sea.' 41 Then ye answered and said unto me: 'We have sinned against the LORD, we will go up and fight, according to all that the LORD our God commanded us.' And ye girded on every man his weapons of war, and deemed it a light thing to go up into the hill-country. 42 And the LORD said unto me: 'Say unto them: Go not up, neither fight; for I am not among you; lest ye be smitten before your enemies.' 43 So I spoke unto you, and ye hearkened not; but ye rebelled against the commandment of the LORD, and were presumptuous, and went up into the hill-country. 44 And the Amorites, that dwell in that hill-country, came out against you, and chased you, as bees do, and beat you down in Seir, even unto Hormah. 45 And ye returned and wept before the LORD; but the LORD hearkened not to your voice, nor gave ear unto you.
These rebels became the skeletons of the “dry bones” mention in Yechezkel. (37:1-14)
46 So ye abode in Kadesh many days, according unto the days that ye abode there.
2:1 Then we turned, and took our journey into the wilderness by the way to the Red Sea, as the LORD spoke unto me; and we compassed mount Seir many days.
We avoided Har Seir recently. But in the Messianic Days when the Tomb of Yosef shall become a flame, we shall eventually judge Har Seir and the descendants of Esav.
2 And the LORD spoke unto me, saying: 3 'Ye have compassed this mountain long enough; turn you northward. 4 And command thou the people, saying: Ye are to pass through the border of your brethren the children of Esau, that dwell in Seir; and they will be afraid of you; take ye good heed unto yourselves therefore; 5 contend not with them; for I will not give you of their land, no, not so much as for the sole of the foot to tread on; because I have given mount Seir unto Esau for a possession. 6 Ye shall purchase food of them for money, that ye may eat; and ye shall also buy water of them for money, that ye may drink. 7 For the LORD thy God hath blessed thee in all the work of thy hand; He hath known thy walking through this great wilderness; these forty years the LORD thy God hath been with thee; thou hast lacked nothing.' 8 So we passed by from our brethren the children of Esau, that dwell in Seir, from the way of the Arabah, from Elath and from Ezion-geber.
They did not act as brothers or cousins but as enemies. But there will be a Day Of Judgement (Ovadia) and we shall possess that land.
And we turned and passed by the way of the wilderness of Moab. 9 And the LORD said unto me: 'Be not at enmity with Moab, neither contend with them in battle; for I will not give thee of his land for a possession; because I have given Ar unto the children of Lot for a possession.
Was this command only for the merit of Lot? Perhaps the L-RD saw that Ruth would come out of Moav and from her David and Moshiach.
10 The Emim dwelt therein aforetime, a people great, and many, and tall, as the Anakim; 11 these also are accounted Rephaim, as the Anakim; but the Moabites call them Emim. 12 And in Seir dwelt the Horites aforetime, but the children of Esau succeeded them; and they destroyed them from before them, and dwelt in their stead; as Israel did unto the land of his possession, which the LORD gave unto them.-- 13 Now rise up, and get you over the brook Zered.' And we went over the brook Zered. 14 And the days in which we came from Kadesh-barnea, until we were come over the brook Zered, were thirty and eight years; until all the generation, even the men of war, were consumed from the midst of the camp, as the LORD swore unto them. 15 Moreover the hand of the LORD was against them, to discomfit them from the midst of the camp, until they were consumed. 16 So it came to pass, when all the men of war were consumed and dead from among the people,
So these giants were consumed with the help of HASHEM. So all the worry by the spies who lost faith was in vain.
17 that the LORD spoke unto me saying: 18 'Thou art this day to pass over the border of Moab, even Ar; 19 and when thou comest nigh over against the children of Ammon, harass them not, nor contend with them; for I will not give thee of the land of the children of Ammon for a possession; because I have given it unto the children of Lot for a possession. 20 That also is accounted a land of Rephaim: Rephaim dwelt therein aforetime; but the Ammonites call them Zamzummim, 21 a people great, and many, and tall, as the Anakim; but the LORD destroyed them before them; and they succeeded them, and dwelt in their stead;
Og was a giant of a man as we shall see from the size of his bed to be given next week. Yet we defeated him. Let not your hearts be troubled about future wars. We shall see this now in historical order.
… 24 Rise ye up, take your journey, and pass over the valley of Arnon; behold, I have given into thy hand Sihon the Amorite, king of Heshbon, and his land; begin to possess it, and contend with him in battle. 25 This day will I begin to put the dread of thee and the fear of thee upon the peoples that are under the whole heaven, who, when they hear the report of thee, shall tremble, and be in anguish because of thee.'
Not only should you not be afraid but they should be afraid of you.
26 And I sent messengers out of the wilderness of Kedemoth unto Sihon king of Heshbon with words of peace, saying: 27 'Let me pass through thy land; I will go along by the highway, I will neither turn unto the right hand nor to the left. … 30 But Sihon king of Heshbon would not let us pass by him; for the LORD thy God hardened his spirit, and made his heart obstinate, that He might deliver him into thy hand, as appears this day.
He did not harken and was delivered into our hand by HASHEM.
… 34 And we took all his cities at that time, and utterly destroyed every city, the men, and the women, and the little ones; we left none remaining; 35 only the cattle we took for a prey unto ourselves, with the spoil of the cities which we had taken.
1 Then we turned, and went up the way to Bashan; and Og the king of Bashan came out against us, he and all his people, unto battle at Edrei. 2 And the LORD said unto me: 'Fear him not; for I have delivered him, and all his people, and his land, into thy hand; and thou shalt do unto him as thou didst unto Sihon king of the Amorites, who dwelt at Heshbon.'
The Bnei Yisrael were between average height to short and he was a giant but he could not handle the power of HASHEM with the Bnei Yisrael.
… This is what we took from Og: 9 which Hermon the Sidonians call Sirion, and the Amorites call it Senir-- 10 all the cities of the plain, and all Gilead, and all Bashan, unto Salcah and Edrei, cities of the kingdom of Og in Bashan.-- 11 For only Og king of Bashan remained of the remnant of the Rephaim; behold, his bedstead was a bedstead of iron; is it not in Rabbah of the children of Ammon? nine cubits was the length thereof, and four cubits the breadth of it, after the cubit of a man.
The length of the bed is about 4 meters or 12 feet plus. However, he may have made the bed so that he could stretch his arms and legs and still have room and the width is that of a regular king size bed of today. Whatever his height was it would intimidate a man. I know that when I confronted about Kashrus the fellow who was 5 to 8 inches taller than I, I did feel a bit intimidated but still did it.
…20 until the LORD give rest unto your brethren, as unto you, and they also possess the land which the LORD your God gives them beyond the Jordan; then shall ye return every man unto his possession, which I have given you. 21 And I commanded Joshua at that time, saying: 'Thine eyes have seen all that the LORD your God hath done unto these two kings; so shall the LORD do unto all the kingdoms whither thou go over. 22 Ye shall not fear them; for the LORD your God, He it is that fights for you.
So do not fear HASHEM is with you!
Training sessions for reserve units do not focus on their prospective assignments in the next potential war.
Depots holding emergency supplies of war materiel are not properly maintained and much of the equipment is not fit for operational use.
The IDF has been unable to combat the prevalence of smartphone use by officers and other ranks. Their ingrained use of Whatsapp betrays their location to the enemy and undermines discipline. Field intelligence is only partly functional. Seven months ago, the IDF announced the issue to combat units of encrypted cell phones, the development of which cost the vast sum of $100m. What happened to those phones? – Gen. Yitzchak Brick. This appeared in the article by Debka that Israel is not prepared for the next war.
I experienced along with my friends around 1986 things like gears falling out of my jeep. Danny having a tire pop off his jeep. A vehicle opposite Syria loosing it’s brakes and the men jumping out before the crash into the valley below. I thought some of this was corrected with newer equipment but what was new in the 1990’s is close to 20 years old today.
A paramedic wrote in the magazine section of lack of proper training and review of paramedics. I will have to continue next week as there is too much to write and will repeat this introduction for consistency.
R. Johanan said: What is illustrative of the verse, Happy is the man that feareth alway, but he that hardeneth his heart shall fall into mischief? The destruction of Jerusalem came through a Kamza and a Bar Kamza; the destruction of Tur Malka came through a cock and a hen; the destruction of Bethar came through the shaft of a leather. The destruction of Jerusalem came through a Kamza and a Bar Kamza in this way. A certain man had a friend Kamza and an enemy Bar Kamza. He once made a party and said to his servant, Go and bring Kamza. The man went and brought Bar Kamza. When the man [who gave the party] found him there he said, See, you tell tales about me; what are you doing here? Get out. Said the other: Since I am here, let me stay, and I will pay you for whatever I eat and drink.said, I won't. Then let me give you half the cost of the party. No, said the other. Then let me pay for the whole party. He still said, No, and he took him by the hand and put him out. Said the other, Since the Rabbis were sitting there and did not stop him, this shows that they agreed with him. I will go and inform against then, to the Government. He went and said to the Emperor, The Jews are rebelling against you. He said, How can I tell? He said to him: Send them an offering and see whether they will offer it [on the altar]. So he sent with him a fine calf. While on the way he made a blemish on its upper lip, or as some say on the white of its eye, in a place where we [Jews] count it a blemish but they do not. The Rabbis were inclined to offer it in order not to offend the Government. Said R. Zechariah b. Abkulas to them: People will say that blemished animals are offered on the altar. They then proposed to kill Bar Kamza so that he should not go and inform against them, but R. Zechariah b. Abkulas said to them, Is one who makes a blemish on consecrated animals to be put to death? R. Johanan thereupon remarked: Through the scrupulousness of R. Zechariah b. Abkulas our House has been destroyed, our Temple burnt and we ourselves exiled from our land.
He [the Emperor] sent against them Nero the Caesar. As he was coming he shot an arrow towards the east, and it fell in Jerusalem. He then shot one towards the west, and it again fell in Jerusalem. He shot towards all four points of the compass, and each time it fell in Jerusalem. He said to a certain boy: Repeat to me [the last] verse of Scripture you have learnt. He said: And I will lay my vengeance upon Edom by the hand of my people Israel. He said: The Holy One, blessed be He, desires to lay waste his House and to lay the blame on me. So he ran away and became a proselyte, and R. Meir was descended from him.
He then sent against them Vespasian the Caesar who came and besieged Jerusalem for three years. There were in it three men of great wealth, Nakdimon b. Gorion, Ben Kalba Shabua' and Ben Zizith Hakeseth. Nakdimon b. Gorion was so called because the sun continued shining for his sake. Ben Kalba Shabua 'was so called because one would go into his house hungry as a dog [keleb] and come out full [sabea']. Ben Zizith Hakeseth was so called because his fringes [zizith] used to trail on cushions [keseth]. Others say he derived the name from the fact that his seat [kise] was among those of the nobility of Rome. One of these said to the people of Jerusalem, I will keep them in wheat and barley. A second said, I will keep them in wine, oil and salt. The third said, I will keep them in wood. The Rabbis considered the offer of wood the most generous,10 since R. Hisda used to hand all his keys to his servant save that of the wood, for R. Hisda used to say, A storehouse of wheat requires sixty stores of wood [for fuel]. These men were in a position to keep the city for twenty-one years.
The biryoni (tough guys in modern Heb.) were then in the city. The Rabbis said to them: Let us go out and make peace with them [the Romans]. They would not let them, but on the contrary said, Let us go out and fight them. The Rabbis said: You will not succeed. They then rose up and burnt the stores of wheat and barley so that a famine ensued. Martha the daughter of Boethius was one of the richest women in Jerusalem. She sent her man-servant out saying, Go and bring me some fine flour. By the time he went it was sold out. He came and told her, There is no fine flour, but there is white [flour]. She then said to him, Go and bring me some. By the time he went he found the white flour sold out. He came and told her, There is no white flour but there is dark flour. She said to him, Go and bring me some. By the time he went it was sold out. He returned and said to her, There is no dark flour, but there is barley flour. She said, Go and bring me some. By the time he went this was also sold out. She had taken off her shoes, but she said, I will go out and see if I can find anything to eat. Some dung stuck to her foot and she died. Rabban Johanan b. Zakkai applied to her the verse, The tender and delicate woman among you which would not adventure to set the sole of her foot upon the ground. Some report that she ate a fig left by R. Zadok, and became sick and died. For R. Zadok observed fasts for forty years in order that Jerusalem might not be destroyed, [and he became so thin that] when he ate anything the food could be seen [as it passed through his throat.] When he wanted to restore himself, they used to bring him a fig, and he used to suck the juice and throw the rest away. When Martha was about to die, she brought out all her gold and silver and threw it in the street, saying, What is the good of this to me, thus giving effect to the verse, They shall cast their silver in the streets.
Abba Sikra the head of the biryoni in Jerusalem was the son of the sister of Rabban Johanan b. Zakkai. [The latter] sent to him saying, Come to visit me privately. When he came he said to him, How long are you going to carry on in this way and kill all the people with starvation? He replied: What can I do? If I say a word to them, they will kill me. He said: Devise some plan for me to escape. Perhaps I shall be able to save a little. He said to him: Pretend to be ill, and let everyone come to inquire about you. Bring something evil smelling and put it by you so that they will say you are dead. Let then your disciples get under your bed, but no others, so that they shall not notice that you are still light, since they know that a living being is lighter than a corpse. He did so, and R. Eliezer went under the bier from one side and R. Joshua from the other. When they reached the door, some men wanted to put a lance through the bier. He said to them: Shall [the Romans] say. They have pierced their Master? They wanted to give it a push. He said to them: Shall they say that they pushed their Master? They opened a town gate for him and he got out.
When he reached the Romans he said, Peace to you, O king, peace to you, O king. He [Vespasian] said: Your life is forfeit on two counts, one because I am not a king and you call me king, and again, if I am a king, why did you not come to me before now? He replied: As for your saying that you are not a king, 56 B in truth you are a king, since if you were not a king Jerusalem would not be delivered into your hand, as it is written, And Lebanon shall fall by a mighty one. 'Mighty one' [is an epithet] applied only to a king, as it is written, And their mighty one shall be of themselves etc.; and Lebanon refers to the Sanctuary, as it says, This goodly mountain and Lebanon. As for your question, why if you are a king, I did not come to you till now, the answer is that the biryoni among us did not let me. He said to him; If there is a jar of honey round which a serpent is wound, would they not break the jar to get rid of the serpent? He could give no answer. R. Joseph, or as some say R. Akiba, applied to him the verse, [God] turneth wise men backward and maketh their knowledge foolish. He ought to have said to him: We take a pair of tongs and grip the snake and kill it, and leave the jar intact.
At this point a messenger came to him from Rome saying, Up, for the Emperor is dead, and the notables of Rome have decided to make you head [of the State]. He had just finished putting on one boot. When he tried to put on the other he could not. He tried to take off the first but it would not come off. He said: What is the meaning of this? R. Johanan said to him: Do not worry: the good news has done it, as it says, Good tidings make the bone fat. What is the remedy? Let someone whom you dislike come and pass before you, as it is written, A broken spirit dries up the bones. He did so, and the boot went on. He said to him: Seeing that you are so wise, why did you not come to me till now? He said: Have I not told you? — He retorted: I too have told you.
He said; I am now going, and will send someone to take my place. You can, however, make a request of me and I will grant it. He said to him: Give me Jabneh and its Wise Men, and the family chain of Rabban Gamaliel, and physicians to heal R. Zadok. R. Joseph, or some say R. Akiba, applied to him the verse, '[God] turneth wise men backward and maketh their knowledge foolish'. He ought to have said to him; Let them [the Jews] off this time. He, however, thought that so much he would not grant, and so even a little would not be saved.
How did the physicians heal R. Zadok? The first day they let him drink water in which bran had been soaked; on the next day water in which there had been coarse meal; on the next day water in which there had been flour, so that his stomach expanded little by little.
This is the story of Rabbi S. Alpern of Chabad San Paulo Brazil who has a vacation spot in FL. His second wife, Yael, has an apartment where we stay in FL. Thanks to Dov O. I can share his encounter with the Rebbe. He has been an encouragement to Menashe, my forester child. http://myencounterblog.com/?p=3103#more-3103 or http://myencounterblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/289.-Devarim-5778.pdf
According to the Mishnah (Taanit 4:6), five specific events occurred on the ninth of Av that warrant fasting:
- The Twelve Spies sent by Moses to observe the land of Canaan returned from their mission. Only two of the spies, Joshua and Caleb, brought a positive report, while the others spoke disparagingly about the land. The majority report caused the Children of Israel to cry, panic and despair of ever entering the "Promised Land". For this, they were punished by God that their generation would not enter the land. The midrash quotes God as saying about this event, "You cried before me pointlessly, I will fix for you [this day as a day of] crying for the generations", alluding to the future misfortunes which occurred on the same date.
- The First Temple built by King Solomon was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar in 587 BCE, and the population of the Kingdom of Judah was sent into the Babylonian exile. The First Temple's destruction began on the 7th of Av (2 Kings 25:8) and continued until the 10th (Jeremiah 52:12). According to the Talmud, the actual destruction of the Temple began on the Ninth of Av, and it continued to burn throughout the Tenth of Av.
- The Second Temple built by Ezra and Nehemiah was destroyed by the Romans in 70 CE, scattering the people of Judea and commencing the Jewish exile from the Holy Land that continues to this day.
- The Romans subsequently crushed Bar Kokhba's revolt and destroyed the city of Betar, killing over 500,000 Jewish civilians (approximately 580,000) on August 4, 135 CE.
5. Following the Bar Kokhba revolt, Roman commander Turnus Rufus plowed the site of the Temple in Jerusalem and the surrounding area, in 135 CE.
Other calamitiesOver time, Tisha B'Av has come to be a Jewish day of mourning, not only for these events, but also for later tragedies which occurred on or near the 9th of Av. References to some of these events appear in liturgy composed for Tisha B'Av (see below).
- The First Crusade officially commenced on August 15, 1096 (Av 24, AM 4856), killing 10,000 Jews in its first month and destroying Jewish communities in France and the Rhineland.
- The Jews were expelled from England on July 18, 1290 (Av 9, AM 5050).
- The Jews were expelled from France on July 22, 1306 (Av 10, AM 5066)
- The Jews were expelled from Spain on July 31, 1492 (Av 7, AM 5252).
- Germany entered World War I on August 1–2, 1914 (Av 9–10, AM 5674), which caused massive upheaval in European Jewry and whose aftermath led to the Holocaust.
- On August 2, 1941 (Av 9, AM 5701), SS commander Heinrich Himmler formally received approval from the Nazi Party for "The Final Solution." As a result, the Holocaust began during which almost one third of the world's Jewish population perished.
- On July 23, 1942 (Av 9, AM 5702), began the mass deportation of Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto, en route to Treblinka.
- The AMIA bombing, of the Jewish community center in Buenos Aires, killed 85 and injuring 300 on 18 July 1994 (10 Av, AM 5754).
- The Israeli disengagement from Gaza began in the Gaza Strip, expelling 8000 Jews who lived in Gush Katif; 15 August 2005; 10 Av, 5765.
Much has been written about the Jews "walking into the ovens." We were derided by the rest of the world. Now the Jews defend themselves and the world attacks again. Until the leaders of Israel come to accept the fact that the vast majority of people on this planet hate the Jews and act only in the best interest of the Jewish state of Israel, our people will be slaughtered. Israel must never again appease any other country or worldwide organization. The world "forgave" the Jews after we went into the ovens. The bear their chests and apologized. That's over. They have forgotten. We must Never Forget.
Diane Weber Bederman